The history of hypnosis began back in 3000BC – 1000BC in Egypt and then in Greece. In England and France the Popes called it the Royal Touch in 1000BC -1400AD. In 1720-1792 Father Hell did exorcisms with iron crosses casting out demons and balancing the brain fluid in the dura with the magnetism. Franz Mesmer in 1734-1815 actually called it hypnostism and is known as the Father of Hypnosis, the term animal magnetism was his treatment, and the procedure was called Mesmerism. Sometimes he used his hand to balance the energy or the flow around the individual. Some other notables in the history of hypnosis were Dr. James Braid who used eye fixation on bright objects such as a gold watch to induce the trance or hypnotic state. James Esdaile a doctor in India performed surgery with hypnosis. Ivan Pavlov discovered the conditioning theory, the beginning of behavior modification and Emile Coue’ discovered AutoSuggestion, and Freud also studied hypnosis from Charcot a leading neurologist and used it for awhile until he began to use free association with his patients. In 1901–1980 Milton Erickson discovered a new technique in hypnosis, the Ericksonian method which is still used today where indirect suggestion through stories is utilized, a more persuasive approach in hypnosis rather than the old approach of direct commands.